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To victory!! Anthrax bacteria being swallowed by an immune system cell 

Multiple anthrax bacteria, in green, are being enveloped by an immune system cell shown in purple.

Credit: Camenzind G. Robinson, Sarah Guilman and Arthur Friedlander, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

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Agrivoltaics - Farming food and fuel, side by side

Image: Courtney White

What is the best way to utilize sunlight—to grow food or to produce fuel?

For millennia, the answer was easy: we used solar energy to grow plants that we could eat. Then, in the 1970s, the answer became more complex as fields of photovoltaic panels (PVPs) began popping up all over the planet, sometimes on former farmland. In the 1990s, farmers began growing food crops for fuels such as corn-based ethanol. The problem is that the food-fuel equation has become a zero-sum game.

That led French agricultural scientist Christian Dupraz to ponder whether both food and fuel production could be successfully combined on one plot of land. For example, why not build solar panels above a farm field so that electricity and food can be produced simultaneously? In addition to resolving the conflict between land uses, solar panels would provide an additional source of income to farmers while at the same time sheltering crops from the rising temperatures and destructive hail and rain storms associated with climate change.

In 2010, Dupraz and his colleagues at INRA, France’s agricultural research institute, built the first-ever “agrivoltaic” farm, near Montpellier. In an 860-square-meter field, they planted crops in four adjacent plots—two in full sun as controls, one under a standard-density array of PVPs, and one under a half-density array of PVPs.

The researchers assumed crop productivity would decline in the shade, since plants would have to compete with solar panels for radiation and possibly water. But they also wondered whether, in a warming world, shade might actually improve crop productivity. “Shade will reduce transpiration needs and possibly increase water efficiency,” Dupraz wrote. The key would be finding the right balance between electricity produced by the solar panels and productive capacity of the farm.

At the end of three growing seasons, the researchers found that compromise was indeed possible. Not surprisingly, the crops under the full-density PVP shading lost nearly 50 percent of their productivity, compared to similar crops in the full-sun plots. However, the crops under the half-density shading were just as productive as the ones in the unshaded control plots; in a few cases, they were even more productive. (1)

The reason for this surprising outcome, according to Hélène Marrou, who studied lettuce in the plots, was the ability of plants to adapt to lower light conditions. She reported that lettuce plants adjusted by increasing their leaf area and by altering leaf arrangement to harvest light more efficiently.

She also had good news to report on the water front. “We showed in this experiment that shading irrigated vegetable crops with PVPs allowed a saving of 14 percent to 29 percent of evapotranspired water, depending on the level of shade created and the crop grown,” she wrote in a 2013 paper. (2) Within the context of global warming and water shortage, she said, reducing water demand by shading plants could represent a big advantage in the near future.


Further reading:

Love it! That’s a great step forward for agriculture, which, optimistically, will soon be made while also producing cleaner energy. Let’s hope people will give it support!






Did you know you can tell different species of fireflies apart by their flash patterns?

Different species of fireflies will also eat one another! So while the males are flashing around searching for females down below, they have to be very careful to choose a lady with a similar pattern or they might end up as dinner [source]

Side note: anyone else following sciencefriday? Or listening to their segments on NPR? You should! Their podcasts are here and here if you prefer podbay

It may be mentioned in that study (I skimmed it :B), but females of some predatory species will actually mimic the flash patterns of other fireflies to lure their males in— so even being appropriately choosy may not save the prey males from becoming a delicious snack ;D

Yes! That’s actually the female photuris. We talk about it a bit towards the end of the video.

I was just explaining this to some neighborhood kids.

Crazy stuff! If you are a male firefly, double your attention!

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